Punjab has been the cradle of civilization since time immemorial. The ruins of Harappa show an advanced urban culture that flourished over 5000 years ago. Taxila, another historic landmark also stands out as a proof of the achievements of the area in learning, arts and crafts in bygone ages.
The forts, palaces, gardens, mosques, mausoleums, are eloquent reminders of the great tradition in Muslim architecture. The structure of a mosque is simple and it expresses openness. Calligraphic inscriptions from the Holy Quran decorate mosques and mausoleums. The inscriptions on bricks and tiles of the mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (1320 AD) at Multan are outstanding specimens of architectural calligraphy. The earliest existing building in South Asia with enameled tile work, is the tomb of Shah Yusuf Gardezi (1150 AD) at Multan. A specimen of the sixteenth century tile-work at Lahore is the tomb of Sheikh Musa Ahangar, with its brilliant blue dome. The tile-work of Emperor Shah Jahan's reign is of a richer and more elaborate nature. The pictured wall of the Lahore Fort is the last line in the tile-work in the entire world.